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How to issue the payment slip for the annuity through the member's portal?

Access the site ( https://cbr.org.br/) with login (CPF or email) and password > select the option “ Annuities”And the contribution that is open> click“Make payment”> Select the option“Contact"
The window will open to confirm if it is this annuity for which you want to generate the billet > click on “Confirm”. The Banco Itaú page will open> select the “Bank slip">"Print out”> Download the generated ticket to be saved on the computer. For payment on boleto, compensation and release of benefits will take place after 24 hours.

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How to pay the annuity via credit card through the member portal?

Access the site ( https://cbr.org.br/) with login (CPF or email) and password> select the “ Annuities”And the contribution that is open> click“Make payment”> Select the“ Credit card ”option.
- Insert the card details such as number, expiration date, name, code (if it will be in cash or in installments)> click on “Select”. A message will appear informing you that the payment has been approved. After approval, the benefits will be released.

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Can you split the amount of the annuity? Does the amount change if I pay cash on the boleto or in installments on the card?

You can install up to 6 times on your credit card. No, the value remains the same for both options.

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How do I request proof that I am up to date with CBR?

Access the site ( https://cbr.org.br/) with login (CPF or email) and password > select the option “ Letter of default”The document will be automatically generated.

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How do I change my member portal password?

Access the website and select the option “Login”> Click“Forgot password”> You will be taken to a page that will ask for your email address registered > then click generate new password > an automatic email will be sent with a link to access and make the change.

If the step-by-step above does not work, contact us so that we can change the password using a standard password. After that, the member will be able to modify it to one of his preference within the portal> click on the option “Change Password”Include the current default password and the new password you wish to enter.

I need to consult CBR legally. How should I proceed?

Legal consultation is an exclusive benefit to the quite Associate of the College. The CBR provides a legal team to answer questions of interest to the radiological class.

To make a legal consultation visit the CBR website (www.cbr.org.br), on the lower left side click on the orange button with the conversation icon, it will open the contact us box, click on Legal / Administrative / Technical consultation, in order to get a response from competent professionals who will assess each situation.

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We are a family owned and operated business.Does CBR have a legal collection that I can access?

Yes, CBR has a Legal Library that compiles contents of Labor, Tax and Professional Law aimed at the performance of the radiologist. In addition to the legal library, the College offers the possibility of legal consultation for members who are paid by opening a form (https://app.pipefy.com/public/form/7FiJ98ou).

Can members publish opinion articles in the CBR Bulletin?

Yes. The CBR Newsletter contains opinion articles. To post them, forward to the email address comunicacao@cbr.org.br the complete material as specified below. The materials sent in accordance with the established will be submitted to the Board for evaluation and approval.

Rules for publication:

Text: maximum of 3.000 (three thousand) characters, including spaces, in a Word file, with a suggested title with a maximum of 50 (fifty) characters with spaces.

Author's photo: portrait type, with a minimum resolution of 300dpi in size 10X15cm, in JPG file.

Term: the publication will be subject to approval and space availability.

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Will members who have open annuities no longer receive the CBR Newsletter?

No. The printed edition of the CBR Bulletin is free for members of the College, for residency / improvement services recognized by CBR and interested in receiving the publication.

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How to book ads (advertising inserts) in CBR Bulletin?

CBR provides spaces for advertising that can be hired by companies, industries and others interested in the CBR Newsletter editions, on the website, at its annual congress, among other means.

To advertise, interested parties should contact the CBR commercial department: (11) 3372-4544 or email: comercial@cbr.org.br

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What is the circulation of the CBR Bulletin?

The CBR Bulletin has national circulation and circulation of approximately 16 thousand copies printed materials distributed free of charge. In addition, it is sent via email to about 20,000 emails registered in our mailing list. Its national penetration allows incomparable reach and efficiency, which allows advertisers to position their brand in front of radiologists throughout the country.
Editions of the CBR Newsletter can be accessed free of charge through the CBR website (https://cbr.org.br/boletim-cbr/) and the CBR Digital Library Application.

Request ad post

The advertisement must be requested by filling in the form that is available below:

Request form

What is the value of the ad?

Members of CBR and ABCDI up to date with their statutory obligations (annuities) can advertise free of charge (limited to one ad per edition / month; if you want to publish more than one ad in the same edition, you must pay the amount described below).

Non-members or associates who are not in compliance with their statutory obligations (annuities) and do not wish to make the adjustment must pay the Ad Insertion Fee according to the desired time of serving, namely:

1 month: R $ 214
2 months: R $ 321
3 months: R $ 428

Who can advertise?

Ad serving is only allowed to Radiology and Image Diagnostics professionals.

What should the ad look like?

The ad size is standard and can contain a maximum of 300 characters with spaces.

Your ad must contain as much product or service information and contact information. In case of theft / theft notification, it is also necessary to inform: brand, model, serial number, origin and year of manufacture.

Content expressed in the ad is the responsibility of the advertiser.

When will the ad be published?

The advertiser will be informed by email as the ad serving is subject to space availability and will comply with the date of request and confirmation by CBR.

On the portal, the announcement will be published shortly after confirmation by CBR. In Bulletin, will enter the next issue with available space.

How to publicize events, courses and activities on CBR's communication channels?

CBR has an Institutional Policy to Support the Disclosure of Events. To request disclosure of courses and events on CBR's communication channels, send your request to the e-mail address comunicacao@cbr.org.br. It will be analyzed in accordance with the Institutional Policy, and it may be approved or not for publication on our channels.

I got the theoretical exam of the title exam in Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, do I need to register, pay the fee and send the requested documents?

Yes, regardless of the release of the theoretical test, the Resident / Perfecting physician must enroll in the Sufficiency Exam to Obtain the Title of Specialist in Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, pay the fee and submit all necessary documents required in the Examination Standard.

When will there be specific proof for longer-trained doctors?

The specific exam, called “Special Category”, is only allowed to be performed by CBR when we receive authorization from AMB / CFM. When authorized, disclosure is usually done at the end of the year to be carried out in the 1st semester of each year.

What is the date for the next CBR Sufficiency Exam?

Follow on our website and social media the disclosure of new dates.

I took the exam last year and didn't get approved. This year I need to send all documents again for registration?

Not necessarily. The registration system is enabled to retrieve the document sent in the previous registration. If not, just upload the same document used. If you want to replace the file, just select the option “Replace”At the time of registration.

Do documents need to be authenticated?
No, we no longer ask for certified copies of any documents. They can scan the original copy of the documents and send. Only training declarations need to be notarized in the declarants' signatures.

Which CRM should I send?
It can be a copy of the Professional Medical Card (page with registration and photo) or the CRM card (type RG).

My CRM is in the process of being transferred or has been stolen. How to proceed?
The candidate can send a transfer protocol issued by the local CRM or 2nd copy request protocol.

I passed the theoretical test, but failed the practical test. Should I do the 1st phase this year again?

Yes. For all areas, all stages are eliminatory.

For sufficiency exams, what documents are required for registration and what format?

In this case, it is important to consult the specific regulations of the area of interest since each specialty has its specific documentation. All documents must be sent via the Registration System in digital form.

I would like to take the exam for two specific areas, is there such a possibility?

No, because all the tests, especially the theoretical ones, are performed on the same day and time.

Are there any recommendations for study?
At the end of the Normative for each specialty, there is a recommendation for bibliography for study.

Does CBR provide previous evidence to study?
Yes, on the CBR website, in the Admission and Titles menu> Expert Title Test> Previous tests, tests and templates are available only from 2016. Before that, the tests were not delivered and cannot be published.

How do I join CBR?

To join the Brazilian College of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging (CBR), the applicant should click on the link "Associate", located at the top of the page, enter CPF and e-mail and then fill out the electronic membership form. It is important to be aware of the following documents:

  • Certified copy of the Regional Medical Council wallet
  • Copy of Expert Title (for Related Members)
  • Statement of action in the area signed by a full member of CBR
  • Proposal signed by two full members of CBR

    The deadline for review of documents and approval by the Admission & Titration Committee is 15 to 30 days, when the doctor will receive confirmation of your new condition.

What are the categories of CBR members?

Holders: doctors with a Specialist Title granted or recognized by the CBR and who exclusively exercise one or more methods of the College.

Affiliates: Doctors with an Area of Practice Certificate granted or recognized by the CBR who exercise one of the College's methods as a secondary activity or who have completed their residency in Radiology MEC Ministry / National Council of Medical Residency (CNRM) or CBR-accredited Vacancy Improvement Course .
Affiliate: Affiliate may be a doctor who does not hold a specialty title or area certificate, granted and recognized by AMB / CBR, but who has affinity with any of these areas.

Matches: doctors residing abroad and exercising one of the CBR methods.

Residents or students: doctors enrolled in residency recognized by the Ministry of Education or CBR-accredited training course.
Students: The medical student who has interest and affinity with the Diagnostic Imaging methods.
There are also honorary members, merits and legal entities.

What are the benefits of being a CBR member?

The CBR member now benefits from several Scientific, Teaching and Advisory benefits, including:

- Elsevier E-books with Amirsys Seal: Electronic versions of 19 books that address the various radiological subspecialties and written by the greats of world radiology
- Workplace: Tool for sharing knowledge and making new contacts
- Continuing Education Program (PEC): Free Online Lessons
- Benefits Club: Discount at Qualicorp, Fast Shop; in the area of education, FIA Business School and Pece; and insurers Porto Seguro, Itaú and Azul
- Discounts on the purchase of books (CBR and BI-RADS® Series), courses, Brazilian Congress of Radiology and other events.
- Access to AJR and other ARRS content
- Free specialized legal advice
- CBR Digital Library App for reading publications on smartphones and tablets
- Brazilian Bulletin and Radiology 

What is PEC?

Continuing Distance Education Program. It was launched on April 1, 2010, in the online version, and is another initiative of the Brazilian College of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging (CBR), which aims to stimulate the scientific development and professional updating of specialty doctors.

Who can participate in the PEC?

The PEC is intended for medical students, resident physicians, graduates, with the title of Specialist or Certificate of Practice, and other interested medical professionals.

Where will the PEC occur?

The program is entirely online. Since the classes do not take place in real time, the participant can attend them at the time, day and place at their convenience.

What should I do to participate?

- CBR Associates with regular registration: access the Associate Physicians profile on the CBR portal, enter the Academic / Scientific Area> Continuing Education menu> and click on the PEC Online option.

- CBR Associates with non-regularized registration: access the Associate Physicians profile on the CBR portal, enter the Academic / Scientific Area> Continuing Education menu, and click on the PEC item online. Click on the desired program and then Buy modules.

- Non-Associates: access the Education and Titling> PEC Online profile on the CBR portal. Click on the desired program and then Buy modules.

What is the format of the program?

The program is organized into thematic modules, consisting of classes and an evaluation block at the end of each module.

Does CBR PEC offer certificate?

Yes, a certificate will be issued at the end of each module to the participant who attends all classes, answers the assessment block, and achieves a minimum hit percentage of 75%.

How many times can I answer the evaluation block?

The evaluation block can be answered up to three (3) times at no additional cost.

What is the cost of PEC?

- CBR members with regular registration, residents and service providers accredited by CBR: free.

- Other interested: contact us by email radiologia@cbr.org.br.

What connection and computer settings are required to attend classes?

The internet connection must be at least 100 Kbps broadband.
The minimum computer settings are:
a- MS Windows 7, Vista, XP, 2003 or 2000, or Mac OS X
b- 800 x 600 pixel screen resolution (1024 x 768 recommended)
c- Sound card compatible with MS Windows or Mac OS X
d- 24-bit video card with 32 Megabyte memory
e- Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 SP2, Mozilla Firefox 3.6, Google Chrome 4.0.249.89, Safari 2.0 or higher
f- Flash player version 8 or higher. If your system is Macintosh, some additional configuration will be required.
To watch a presentation on a Macintosh OS X, you will need one of the following browsers:
- Safari 2.0 or higher, or Flash player version 8 or higher.

More information about the PEC:

(11) 3372-4544 or radiologia@cbr.org.br.

Does radiation from medical devices increase the incidence of cancer in the population?

There is currently no conclusive scientific evidence that there is a relationship between the increased likelihood of developing cancer and the application of ionizing radiation in low-dose diagnostic procedures. However, some studies, based on limited statistics, suggest that radiation levels applied in computed tomography procedures may slightly increase the risk of developing radioinduced cancer in the future, particularly in pediatric patients.

There is a consensus that the benefit of accurately diagnosing the most appropriate clinical approach for treating the patient far outweighs the potential risks of this radiological technique.

To maximize the benefits of diagnostic radiation applications, procedures should be well justified and optimized. In a radiological examination, the patient should be given the lowest possible dose, maintaining the image quality required for diagnosis.

Risks from CT scans - what do recent studies tell us? J. Radiol. Prot. 34 (2014) E1 – E5
UNSCEAR 2013: Effects of Radiation Exposure of Children
NCRP Report 171 (2012): Uncertainties in the Estimation of Radiation Risks
Radiol Clin North Am. 2009 January; 47 (1): 27–40. doi: 10.1016 / j.rcl.2008.10.006.
Mayo Clin Proc. • December 2010; 85 (12): 1142-1146 www.mayoclinicproceedings.com
Cynthia H. McCollough1. The Role of the Medical Physicist in Managing Radiation Dose and
Communicating Risk in CT. AJR 2016; 206: 1241-1244.

Does radiation from medical devices increase the incidence of cancer in the population?

There is no established upper limit to the number of CT scans that an individual can undergo, provided there is a well-founded clinical indication with properly optimized protocols. Prior examinations and alternative imaging techniques should be considered before performing another CT scan. Special attention should be paid to pediatric patients who are more radiosensitive than adults.

How does the computed tomography (CT) radiation dose compare with other methods such as x-ray and scintigraphy?

CT radiation doses to the patient are higher than other radiological procedures. Currently, the radiation dose associated with a routine CT procedure varies from 1 to 14 mSv depending on the scan and is comparable to the annual dose received from natural radiation sources such as radon and cosmic radiation (1-10 mSv), depending on where the person lives. Thus, the risk for an individual exposed to radiation on a CT scan would be comparable to environmental radiation levels.

The effective dose of a CT scan can range from 50 to 400 times the dose of a chest x-ray, depending on the technical parameters used.

However, it is also necessary to consider the doses absorbed in organs, especially the most radiosensitive ones, such as the lens, the thyroid and the gonads. It is therefore recommended to shield these organs with shielding when possible or to reduce exposure factors.

In the case of nuclear medicine, in scintigraphy procedures, the values range from 1.2 mSv to 23 mSv, depending on the study. These effective dose values are comparable to those observed in tomography procedures. Tables 1 and 2 show the effective dose values for different procedures in nuclear medicine and computed tomography respectively.

Table 1: Average effective doses in nuclear medicine examinations

ProcedureEffective dose (mSv)
MDP-Technetium-99m Bone Scintigraphy3,6
Myocardial scintigraphy MIBI-Technetium-99m4,2
Renal scintigraphy DMSA-Technetium-99m2,5
Pulmonary perfusion MAA-Technetium-99m1,2
Thallium chloride myocardial scintigraphy 20123
Thallium Chloride Parathyroid18
Sodium iodide thyroid scan (I-123)3,4
International Atomic Energy Agency - Basic Safety Standards - BSS115
International Commission on Radiological Protection - Publications ICRP 53, ICRP80 and ICRP106

Table 2: Average effective doses on CT scans

CT examsMean effective dose (mSv)Equivalent number of PA chest radiographs (0.02 mSv each)
Head2100
Neck3150
Calcium Count3150
Pulmonary angiography5,2260
Column6300
Chest8400
Coronary angiography8.7435
Abdomen10500
Pelvis10500
Virtual colonoscopy10500
Thorax (pulmonary embolism)15750

Source: (https://rpop.iaea.org/RPOP/RPoP/Content/InformationFor/Patientspatient-information-computed-tomography/index.htm) radiol Clin North Am, 2009; 47 (1): 27-40.
Effective doses in Radiology and diagnostic nuclear medicine: A catalog, Radiology 248 1 (2008) 254-263.
Radiation exposure in multi-slice versus single-slice spiral CT: Results of a nationwide survey, Eur. Radiol. 13 (2003) 1979-1991.
Revised radiation doses for typical x-ray examinations, Br. J Radiol. 70 833 (1997) 437-439.
Radiation dose and cancer risk estimates in 16-slice computed tomography coronary angiography. J. Nucl. Cardiol. 15 2 (2008) 232-240.

Are MRI and ultrasound radiation free?

Both techniques do not use x-rays for imaging. There is no scientific data to indicate that MRI and ultrasound are associated with any cancer risk.

Is there a way to know the radiation dose on a CT scan? Can anyone have access to this information?

Yes, all CT scanners provide two dose descriptors: Volume Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDIvol) or Volumetric CTDI and Dose Length Product (DLP) or Dose Length. However, these quantities should be used only as a dose estimate in the procedure. As they are obtained from phantoms (16 and 32 cm), these quantities do not represent the characteristics of each patient and, therefore, cannot be considered as the doses received by the patient, especially in pediatrics.

To obtain a more accurate estimate according to the specific anatomical region of a patient, a methodology was developed that includes correction factors, considering the patient's dimensions. The method for this analysis can be found in the following publication:

Size Specific Dose Estimation (SSDE) in Pediatric and Adult body CT Examination - American Association of Physicists in Medicine report of task group 204 (2011)

Are there ways to reduce or control the radiation dose of a CT scan?

Yes, it is possible to reduce radiation doses without compromising image quality for diagnosis. Initially, it should be ensured that the examination was properly justified and that alternative techniques such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging were considered. The best balance between image quality and radiation dose should be ensured by adopting the following optimization strategies:

- Adjust protocols for patient groups considering age, biotype, gender and clinical indication;
- Reduce the number of scanning phases by using only the necessary ones (intravenous contrast exams);
- Avoid repetition of unnecessary exams;
- Use automatic dose control whenever possible;
- Reduce mAs as much as possible by considering the acceptable noise level for diagnosis;
- Limit the scan length by restricting it to the region of interest;
- Use immobilization and shielding devices for sensitive organs when possible;
- Avoid using low pitches;
- Use interactive reconstruction methods;
- It is recommended to compare the institution's CTDIvol and DLP values for a defined sample of patients with established international reference levels.

Diagnostic Reference Levels (NRD) and Achievable Doses (AD) for Adult and Pediatric CT at CTDIvol

ProcedureLateral dimension of the patientPhantom Diameter (cm)CTDIvolNRD (mGy)CTDIvolAD (mGy)
Head - (adult)16167557
Pelvis Abdomen (adult)38322517
Chest (adult)35322114
Head (pediatric - 5 years)15164031
Abdomen (pediatric - 5 years)20162014

Source: ACR – AAPM Practice Parameter for Diagnostic Reference Levels and Achievable Doses In Medical X-Ray Imaging (August 21, 2015)

Can pregnant patients do tomography?

CT examinations in pregnant patients are not prohibited, but there must be an accurate clinical indication for their performance. Alternative diagnostic techniques that do not use ionizing radiation should be considered. However, if the CT scan is properly justified, every effort must be made to optimize the procedure while minimizing fetal exposure.

There is a particular concern in examining a pregnant woman because of the risk of exposure of the fetus to ionizing radiation, particularly in the first trimester of pregnancy. Potential effects of radiation to the fetus include embryonic, neonatal or fetal death, congenital malformation, and functional changes such as mental retardation, reduced intelligence quotient, and childhood cancer. The risk is related to the dose rate and total radiation dose received by the fetus and the developmental stage at the time of exposure.
Tests that require direct exposure of the fetus to the primary bundle, such as abdominal exams, deserve the most attention and care. For examinations in regions away from the fetal area, the scattered radiation received by the fetus will be very small as long as the procedure is properly conducted.

Prior to the examination, the radiologist should discuss the referral with the requesting physician assessing the risks and benefits of the procedure. A qualified physicist or professional needs to estimate the dose absorbed by the fetus. Technique parameters need to be optimized and technique factors recorded. Unnecessary exposure of the abdomen and pelvis should be avoided by limiting the area to be exposed as much as possible by using precise, single phase collimation and, if possible, pelvic protectors. The fetal dose needs to be reduced to what is strictly necessary to obtain the diagnosis. All contrast media need to be used with caution. Repeated examination should be avoided.

Importantly, in properly optimized procedures the doses received by the fetus are much lower than 100 mGy, which corresponds to the threshold established in international recommendations. Therefore, the procedures should not be associated with an increase in abnormalities or fetal death.

Radiation Exposure and Pregnancy: When Should We Be Concerned? RadioGraphics 2007; 27: 909–918
Imaging in Pregnant Patients: Examination Appropriateness. RadioGraphics 2010; 30: 1215–1233 •
Report No. 174 - Preconception and Prenatal Radiation Exposure: Health Effects and Protective Guidance (2013)

A New Pregnancy Policy for a New Era. Pregnancy and Medical Radiation. ICRP Publication 84. Ann. ICRP 30 (1), 2000

Is it safe to perform tomography on children?

When performed properly, the benefits of a CT scan far outweigh the risks. CT can provide detailed information to diagnose, plan treatment and assess the patient's clinical condition. In addition, it can eliminate the need for exploratory surgery.

The risk of cancer in children due to radiation exposure is approximately two to three times higher than in adults because pediatric patients have a longer life expectancy and their organs are more sensitive to radiation. For newborns, the risk of cancer induction is essentially the same as in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. Therefore, it is essential that the exam be optimized to obtain the diagnosis.

Pediatric protocols with specifically established exposure parameters should be used, as well as current modulation systems and low-kV techniques. As an international consensus, the examination needs to be performed in only one phase, avoiding, where possible, the pre-contrast phase.

www.imagegently.org
UNSCEAR 2013: Effects of Radiation Exposure of Children

Is there a radiation risk when accompanying a patient in the CT scan room?

The risk of accompanying a patient on a CT scan is very low. However, any radiation exposure should be avoided. The stay of a companion in the room during the procedure should only be allowed when strictly necessary for the exam. When the presence of the companion is indispensable, all radiological protection measures should be adopted in order to minimize their radiation exposure. It is recommended that the companion, parent or family member, use the lead apron and the thyroid protector during the procedure. The technician should be advised if the companion is likely to be pregnant to avoid exposure.

How does radiation therapy radiation compare to computed tomography? Do they add up?

Radiotherapy uses x-rays, gamma rays and other types of radiation to treat cancer and other diseases. The radiation energy deposited in the tissue is used to destroy tumor cells. Radiation doses applied to the tumor are thousands of times higher than those received by patients undergoing diagnostic X-ray examinations. While doses in radiotherapy are in the order of Gy (absorbed dose unit), in tomography the absorbed doses in organ are in the order of mGy, that is, a thousand times smaller.

When radiotherapy and tomography are performed, the effective doses received may be added by applying the appropriate calculation methodology. The quantities and units involved in each procedure must be carefully checked to properly calculate the dose received by the patient.

How can I make sure that the clinic I am undergoing the exams takes proper care of radiation protection?

To make sure that the radiology service meets the radiation protection requirements, it is recommended to check whether:

a) Does the facility have a health permit
To obtain the license, the service must meet radiological protection requirements established in the current legislation of the Ministry of Health.

b) The facility has a Computerized Tomography Quality Seal of the Brazilian College of Radiology
To obtain the seal of quality, the facility undergoes an evaluation by the tomography committee, composed of a group of radiologists and a physicist. In this evaluation process the following requirements are observed: a) qualification of service professionals; b) image quality assessment: the committee's radiologists group analyzes tomography images of different procedures provided by the service and the respective reports; c) radiological protection criteria, including radiation doses, are observed by the committee physicist.
In addition, in 2015 CBR began the implementation of an accreditation program (PADI) for diagnostic imaging clinics, which includes auditing of tomography services.

c) Does the service have a radiation protection program
It is recommended that the patient or guardian check with the service which radiation protection measures are adopted for the patient, such as: if there are specific protocols for pediatrics and which measures are adopted by the service to optimize the exams.

Is the atomic bomb radiation the same as computed tomography?

There are many differences between an individual's radiation exposure in a CT procedure and radiation exposure from an atomic bomb. Exposure on tomography only involves a specific region of the body, whereas with the bomb explosion, in addition to the exposure being full body, there was also internal contamination (radioactive particles were inhaled, ingested and deposited in the body). In tomography, technical factors are duly selected to provide the lowest possible radiation dose to the patient without impairing the radiological image. In the case of the atomic bomb, the radiation level received by each individual varied according to their position relative to the epicenter without any control.

It should be noted that the atomic bomb explosion resulted in initial radiation (gamma and neutron emission) and residual radiation (gamma and beta emission). Between 150,000 and 200,000 people died during the explosions and in the months that followed. Most individuals within a kilometer of the bombing died of acute radiation poisoning, debris fall, or fires that erupted in the aftermath of the attack.

However, about 25,000 atomic bomb survivors were exposed to relatively low doses of radiation, comparable between one and three CT scans, and showed no significant increase in cancer risk. The number of cancer cases that have developed over the rest of their lives is not, however, large enough to provide the statistics needed to reliably predict the risk of CT-associated cancer in the general population today.

In the light of radiation data in the literature, there is still no consensus on the risk of developing cancer due to the low radiation doses of tomography.

Even groups that believe there is an increased risk would be very small compared to the possibility of a person developing cancer from natural causes. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) concluded that 10 mSv (approximate dose of an abdominal scan) would increase the risk of cancer death by 0.05%. Given that the natural incidence of cancer death in anyone in the US is 20% (about 400 times higher), a single CT scan would increase the risk of developing a fatal patient's average tumor to 20.05%. Importantly, it should be noted that there is no consensus on these risk values.

Beyond the Bombs: Cancer Risks from Low-Dose Medical Radiation. Lancet 2012 August 4; 380 (9840): 455-457.
http://www.fda.gov/Radiation-EmittingProducts/RadiationEmittingProductsandProcedures/MedicalImaging/MedicalX-Rays/ucm115329.htm

How big are the mortality risks of tomography compared to the risks of everyday life?

At low radiation doses, as with radiological procedures, the exact magnitude of the risk is a controversial issue. This is because for doses below 100 mSv the risks are too low to be measured directly.

Assuming that there is a slight increase in the risk of cancer with low radiation doses, it is recommended to keep the dose levels as low as possible while maintaining the appropriate image quality for diagnosis.

The risk associated with single or multiple CT scans is minimal. Every individual is daily exposed to background radiation levels, which can range from 3 to 10 mSv / year, depending on the region. No increase in cancer cases has been observed in regions where background radiation is highest. In tomography, depending on the type of procedure, radiation doses received by the patient may range from 2 to 10 mSv. In special procedures, these values may increase to 20 to 30 mSv, but radiation levels are still considered low. Thus, the risk for an individual exposed to radiation on a CT scan may be comparable to background radiation levels. A head scan and a chest scan would correspond, on average, to 8 and 36 months of background radiation exposure, respectively. On a transatlantic flight, for example, radiation exposure would correspond to 11 days of background radiation exposure.

The risk of mortality from a CT scan is significantly lower than the risk associated with various daily activities. For example, it has been estimated that in the US, the risk of dying walking on the street is 32 times higher than the risk of a CT scan and the risk of death while driving a car is 240 times higher than a CT. The following table compares other types of day-to-day radiation risks due to CT procedures.

Derived from: Fletcher JG, Kofler JM, Coburn JA, Bruining DH, McCollough CH.
Perspective on radiation risk in CT imaging. 2012 Jul 27; 38 (1): 22–31.

What are the Medical Residencies and Radiology Improvement Courses accredited by MEC / CBR? 

The complete list of all Services accredited and recognized by the MEC / CBR in Brazil is available on the CBR website. To access it, just enter the section Admission and Degree, in the menu Residence / Improvement> Accreditation of Training Services> Accredited Services

How to apply for accreditation of Medical Residency and Improvement Course for a Radiology Service?

For the Medical Residency, the accreditation request must be sent directly to the MEC.

For the Improvement Course, the Teaching, Improvement and Medical Residency Committee of CBR informs that since 2018 the new accreditations and / or the increase in vacancies in training programs in Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging have been canceled. This is due to the beginning of the process of reviewing the RDDI training models, the relationship with the National Medical Residency Commission (CNRM) and with the MEC residency programs.

At this time, we recommend anyone interested in establishing RDDI training programs to seek accreditation from the MEC.

Accreditation for Ultrasound training programs and Fellowship/ Level 4 or 5. For these, the request must be sent via the CEAR Portal, through the address https://cear.cbr.org.br/Login > Accreditation requests.

After completing and receiving this request, the Teaching Commission (CEAR) will analyze the process and conduct the service survey. It will then issue a final favorable opinion or not. If favorable, the Service will be authorized to begin training at the beginning of the following year.

What is the period for applying for Improvement Course Accreditation?

The registration period for the accreditation of the Ultrasonography and Fellowship/ Level 4 or 5 is until the end of the 1st semester (January to June) and the evaluation of the Teaching, Improvement and Residence Committee of CBR is made in the 2nd semester (August to October) of the same year.

Is there a Training Program to be followed by Medical Residencies and Improvement Courses?

Yes. All training programs and standards are available here on the CBR website, in the Admission and Degree> Residency / Improvement> Accreditation of training services.

How to register the Residents / Perfecting?

RESIDENTS / PERFECT LEVEL 1

In order to complete the registration, the Resident / Improving Student (level 1) must access the CBR portal and register through the Admission and Degree> Residence / Improvement> Registration section.

CBR will import all registration data into the internal system and will await confirmation from the Coordinator of the referred institution, who must confirm the student's link through the CEAR portal for the registration to take effect. https://cear.cbr.org.br/.

During this period, the student's access to the CBR portal through the Member's Space will be blocked. Only after the confirmation made by the Coordinator of the referred institution and the due confirmation by CBR, the student will be considered a CBR Partner in the category of Resident Member / Improving, according to the terms of art. 26, § 1, of the CBR Bylaws (available on the portal).

RESIDENT MEMBERS / IMPROVING LEVELS 2 AND 3

In order to re-register, the resident / perfecting must access the portal through the Member Space.

In the Registration Update icon, the resident / student must check / update all their data and confirm their re-registration. CBR will import all your registration data into the internal system and will await confirmation from your Coordinator through the CEAR portal. https://cear.cbr.org.br/

Is registration at the beginning of the year for Resident / Improvement valid as a registration for the December Annual Assessment?

No, they are different procedures. At the beginning of the year, CBR opens the registration of Residents / Improving People so that everyone can be registered with CBR and start receiving all information. In the 2nd semester, the registration period for the Annual Assessment is opened, in which the candidate must confirm his participation and choose the location of the test.

Is the revalidation of the Specialist Title and Area of Practice Certificate mandatory?

No, the Revalidation process became optional due to the publication, on February 9, 2012, of CFM Resolution No. 1,984 / 2012, revoking the mandatory nature of CFM Resolution No. 1,772.

What do you need to do to get it?

Those interested in participating in the Revalidation process should:

Register on the website of the National Accreditation Commission (CNA) - www.cna-cap.org.br;
request from your Specialty Society as soon as possible the production of your Specialist Title / Area Certificate; participate in events and other professional updating activities accredited by CNA; every five (5) years, perform a new revalidation.

It is also important to note that the title of specialist or certificate of area does not lose its value. The doctor enrolled in the case need only prove that he has kept up to date after passing the proofs of obtaining the document. The AMB understands that this way is ensuring the permanent medical learning and its scientific updating, aiming not only the valuation of the professional, but the best service to the population.

How to submit scientific articles to the journal Radiologia Brasileira?

Visit the site: www.rb.org.br. In the Article Submission menu, register by entering your email and continue to complete the requested data. Then, enter the system and submit your article in the Author category. Wait for our contact to know if your text was approved or not for publication.

How to apply for the Specialist Title and / or Area Certificate?

The preparation of Specialist Titles and / or Certificates of Practice Area is the exclusive responsibility of the Brazilian Medical Association (AMB). This will require the following procedures:

1. Make a written request to CBR, expressing his interest in making his Title. The e-mail should be sent to radiologia@cbr.org.br together with your CPF number, full name, date of birth and the approved specialty.

2. Upon receipt of this request by CBR, your e-mail will be answered with the remaining instructions for completing your request.

3. Approved from 2018 - We inform that the request for the preparation of the Titles and Certificates of the approved candidates from 2018, has already been automatically inserted in the AMB System. To complete the order, simply access the link:
Access the address: http://www.sistemas.amb.org.br/TITULOS/
Your login: will be your CPF (numbers only)
Access password: AMB1234 (capital letter and all together)

Attention: AMB will only start the confection only after paying the fee and filling in all your data. Minimum deadline given by AMB for making and shipping is at least 120 days. Any problem, contact AMB directly, by phone: (11) 3178-6800- R / 120.

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